Egypt’s Economy: Overview of GDP, Currency and Growth Potentials

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Egypt has a population of over 100 million and is the third most populous country in Africa after Nigeria and Ethiopia. The country has also been growing quite steadily, like many other African nations, as well as most of its Arab neighbors. In this article we will explore some key insights on Egypt’s economy, including its growth potentials and GDP analysis.

Egypt follows a market-oriented economy where the government plays a major role in the allocation of resources and setting of prices. The country’s economic liberalization policies have led to an increase in foreign direct investment, privatization of public sector enterprises, and an expansion of the services sector.

The agriculture sector remains one of the largest contributors to Egypt’s GDP. The industry is fragmented with small operators producing goods for local consumption. The sector employs as much as 30% of Egypt’s total workforce and accounts for about 11.6% of its GDP.

Egypt’s fast-growing economy has made it one of Africa’s most promising markets for businesses looking to expand their regional footprint. The nation also presents an excellent opportunity for investors seeking opportunities in a stable and secure environment with high returns potential.

Egypt’s Economy: GDP Growth and Development

According to Reuters, the Egyptian economy is expected to expand by 4.9% in the 2023/2024 fiscal year and grow even further by 5.4% in 2024/2025.

This forecast is based on the assumption that the global economy will continue to recover from the economic strains caused by the Pandemic and that tensions would have cooled down in Ukraine.

Egypt’s economy has been growing steadily over the last few years as a result of a number of economic reform measures, including privatization, a reduction in government spending, and the introduction of a new investment law. The country’s GDP was $423.15 million in 2021, amounting to an annual growth rate of 3.3%.

Currency and Exchange Rates in Egypt

For the past few years, the Egyptian pound has been slowly losing its value in the international markets.

The economy is expected to slow down in the coming months due to the heated tensions in Ukraine, a situation that led to many foreign investors withdrawing billions of dollars from the Egyptian treasury market, and analysts anticipate the pound’s value to drop further.

While this may make importing goods more expensive, it’s also good news for tourists, who can expect to pay less for souvenirs and other items from Egypt. The exchange rate of the Egyptian pound to the US dollar has declined substantially over recent months, reaching its lowest point of 1 USD = 19.62 EGP in October 2022.

Egypt’s Current Economic Situation

The economy of Egypt has been expanding since 2017, with an average growth of 5%. It has been growing steadily (even during COVID), and the country is expected to remain one of the fastest-growing economies in the world for many years to come.

The rate of growth is expected to be 5.76% in 2025 and 5.9% in 2027. The main contributors to the growth of the economy include the agricultural industry, oil and gas, as well as the tourism sector. The agricultural industry has been growing steadily thanks to government policies that are aimed at increasing exports of agricultural products. There has also been an increase in tourism.

People from all around the globe come to visit Egypt and see the Pyramids, among other cultural treasures. There are, however, some challenges that are currently affecting the growth of the Egyptian economy. This includes the decline in tourism caused by the Ukraine-Russia crisis among others.

Economic Growth in Egypt

The Egyptian economy has expanded at an impressive rate since 2017 as stated above, with an average growth of 5%. The country has also managed to reduce its unemployment rate from 9.3% in 2021 to 7.2% in 2022. However, this means there is still a good percentage of the population that is not employed or actively looking for work, and therefore they are not contributing to the country’s economic growth.

The agricultural industry, tourism, as well as the oil and gas sector, has been the main contributors to the growth of the economy so far.

Growth in key sectors of the economy


Agriculture has remained one of the largest contributors to Egypt’s GDP. However, the sector has been affected by extreme weather conditions over the last few years, which have led to reduced crop yields.

Economy experts recommend that the government invest in irrigation systems and other infrastructure projects to improve the productivity of the agricultural sector.


The industrial sector remains one of the largest contributors to the Egyptian economy even during the Pandemic. The Egyptian government has taken steps to encourage even more growth in this sector which will lead to an increase in the sector’s GDP.

Economists recommend that the government provide more incentives for businesses to invest in the industry. This will help to strengthen the sector and create more job opportunities.

Tourism – Tourism is one of Egypt’s major sources of foreign currency and has been growing steadily in the last few years. The industry employs more than 2 million people and had an annual revenue of $22 billion in 2021. The tourism sector has been particularly active in recent years although it saw a huge decline during the pandemic.

Like In 2019, the number of tourists visiting Egypt was around 13 million, which is significantly higher than the 3.7 million people who visited in 2020.

Developmental Challenges Affecting Egypt’s Economy

Egypt’s economy faces several developmental challenges. These challenges can slow down the country’s overall economic growth and also affect the growth of various sectors of the economy.

Though the government is currently taking various steps to overcome these challenges, we will be highlighting some of them below:

Inadequate Infrastructure

The infrastructure of the country is underdeveloped and poorly maintained. This slows down the growth of the country’s economy as well as the growth of various sectors of the economy.

To overcome this challenge, the government has taken various steps, such as investing in the construction of new roads and rail networks.

Poor Education System

Although the education system of the country is up to the mark. The system is unable to cater to its public schools as many of these schools don’t have standard educational facilities to teach the larger part of the country’s young population (as many attend public schools).

Poor Social Security System

The government has not been able to provide adequate social security to the citizens of the country. The country’s healthcare and pension systems also need to be improved.

Final Thoughts on Egypt’s Economy: Overview of GDP, Currency and Growth Potentials

Egypt’s growth is expected to be driven by several sectors including agriculture, and tourism. The country may face several challenges in the long-term, but with proper policy making, these can be addressed and minimized to support continued growth in the Egyptian economy.

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